Monthly Archives: June 2014

8. OSD Project

osd-map-samOsd ocean sampling day is a day when lots of people In the world will do a big thing for scientists. These are the things that help scientists understand more about the oceans. So we made a secchi disc and went out in the dingy to do our measurements but the secchi disc didn’t sink down so we put on a new weight and then it sank fine. We up loaded our results by using a special app and now they are on a blog where everyone can see them.

  1. Measure the  water to know how cold it is.
  2. Measure the air to know how cold it is.
  3. Find out how much microbes are in the water.
  4. And some other stuff that need kits for.

You can see my samples on the Sardinia part of the OSD map here:


7. Environment

coral-bleachingEnvironmental changes

We are making so much pollution with cars and buses that oceans are being damaged and fish stocks are dying out.

Some of the changes include:

  • Coral bleaching
  • More storms
  • Species moving
  • Altered life styles
  • Rising sea levels
  • Acidic oceans

Over fishing
Over fishing is one of the greatest threats to fish.
80% of fisheries are either fully or over exploited
If people continue to fish this much then whole fish stocks will die out.

turtle-plastic turtle-and-plasticPollution
In the last 100 years there has been a great increase of human population.
So the amount of pollution has gone up as well.
Farming and industry often put chemicals in the sea.
There is an sea of plastic in the Pacific ocean that might be a thousand miles across.

mass-whale-stranding dead-snapperBeach deaths
Some times there loads of dead fish on some beaches like there were loads of snapper on a beach in New Zealand.
People don’t know weather the fish deaths are natural or man made.
Mass whale strandings may be caused by sonar, but scientists are not sure.

6. Fresh Water

caspian-seaWhat is fresh water

All the water in the world is fresh water except for sea water.
Fresh water has little or no salt in it.
Fresh water is really important for the life of earth.


Where is most fresh water.
The most fresh water in the world is at the two poles.
The biggest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea.
The longest river in the world is the world is the Nile, which in length is 6,650 km.


Fresh water fish.
They are different from sea fish.
Euryhaline is the type of fish that lives in fresh water and salt water, like Eels and Salmon.


People living on fresh water.
The Uru people live on reed islands on a lake in Peru.
They make everything they have out of reeds.
If there is a war brewing then they make their island float away from the war.

eels  uros-people

5. Evolution under the sea

Evil-ution_Fish_Becomes_GatorEvolution started with fungi and lichen but the first creatures evolved in the sea.

Scientists now know from studying fossils that they evolved over millions and millions of years to walk on land and breathe air.

Human and land animals evolved from fish. The fish had fins and the fins evolved into feet and legs, and the gills evolved into the lungs, and this allowed them to live on land. So they were called tetropods which means they have four legs.

tetrapod_evoThe earliest type of ocean fish didn’t have jaws and didn’t survive very well, so they adapted to have jaws. The first fish to have jaws was a shark, soon almost all living fish had jaws the ones that didn’t evolve to have jaws became extinct.

Then all the fish swam up to the rivers and became the ancestors of our modern day fish (including the ocean fish).

Some fish continue to evolve like the salmon which changed their spawning time because of global warming.

Evolution is continuing even now and will continue for ever more.
Tiktaalik 1 resized blue-whale1